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SWATARA WATERSHED ASSOCIATION

Lebanon, PA USA

Reduce Your Carbon Footprint

 

 

Chapter 6 : Cultural Resources

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A.  Recreation
     1.  Use
     2.  Facilities
          a.  Public Parks
          b.  Public Forests/Gamelands
          c.  Boat Launches
          d.  Trails
          e.  Campgrounds
          f.  Golf Courses
          g.  Amusement Parks
          h.  Other
B.  Archaeological and Historical
     1.  Prehistory
     2.  Early Colonial Settlement
     3.  Community and Commercial Development
     4.  Industrial Development
     5.  Post Industrial

A. Recreation

The Swatara Creek watershed has been a source of recreation since the time of the first settlers in the area.

1. Use

Areas utilized for recreational use are situated throughout the Swatara Creek watershed. Fishing, hunting, hiking, camping, canoeing, swimming, etc. areas are common and are well utilized by the residents of, and visitors to the area.

Although many of the streams within the Swatara Creek watershed are or have been impaired by pollution, fishing is still an important recreational activity. The Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission (PFBC) lists several species of game fish as being present within the watershed. These species include Large and Smallmouth Bass; Brook, Brown, and Rainbow Trout; Chain Pickerel; Yellow Perch, and Muskellunge.

Because of the inherent differences in the waters within the watershed, determining the quality and quantity of fishing associated with each is not possible. However, streams or ponds and lakes receiving special management or designation by the PFBC are presented in Table 6-1.

Canoeing has become an increasingly popular recreational activity on Swatara Creek and some of its major tributaries. Swatara Creek has been listed as a navigable waterway (Public Highway Declaration Act) since 1811 from its mouth at the Susquehanna River (Dauphin County) upstream to where Good Spring Creek enters Swatara. Lower Little Swatara Creek in Schuylkill County is also listed as a navigable waterway.  Canoe and boat launch/take out points have been established at several areas along Swatara Creek and in other local waterways in the watershed. In addition, a water trail has been established by SCWA and the PFBC for the lower section of Swatara Creek.

Table 6-1

Special Management Waters Located Within the Swatara Creek Watershed

County

Water

Limits

Selected Trout Stocked Lake

Lebanon

Stoevers Dam

NA

 

Delayed Harvest Artificial Lures Only Waters

Dauphin

Manada Creek

1.8 Miles

Between Briarcrest and Furnace Roads

Lebanon

Quittapahilla Creek

0.9 Miles

Between Spruce Street Bridge and Quittie Creek Nature Park

Big Bass Lakes

Lebanon

Memorial Lake

NA

Hunting has been and continues to be a tradition within the Swatara Creek watershed. Numerous public lands open for hunting are located within the watershed; these include State Gamelands, State Parks, State Forests, and Fort Indiantown Gap property. The majority of this land is located in the forested northern portion of the watershed. The majority of the southern portion of the watershed is privately owned farmland with limited access. However, in some cases to reduce crop damage, permission can be obtained to hunt on these private lands. Table 6-2 lists the available public hunting lands in the Swatara Creek watershed.

Table 6-2

Public Hunting Areas Located in the Swatara Creek Watershed

Facility

County

Acreage

State Gameland 246

Dauphin

424 Acres

Ft. Indiantown Gap Military Reservation (Permit Required)

Dauphin, Lebanon

18,506 Acres

(Not all available for hunting)

State Gameland 211

Dauphin, Lebanon

12,294 Acres

Swatara State Park

Lebanon, Schuylkill

3,515 Acres

State Gameland 229

Schuylkill

2,891 Acres

State Game Land 160

Schuylkill

245 Acres

State Game Land 80

Berks, Schuylkill, Lebanon

8,507 Acres

Weiser State Forest

Schuylkill

2,073 Acres

Camping, hiking, biking, and walking have become increasingly popular throughout the country as well as in the Swatara Creek watershed. Numerous public and private camping areas are available. In addition several trails and routes are currently available for use or are proposed for the future. In many instances, the hiking trails are located adjacent or in close proximity to the campgrounds and other public facilities.

2. Facilities

Mackin Engineering identified 185 recreational facilities during the field view and background information review of the watershed. The information is broken down by county, municipality, and sub-watershed where appropriate. It is detailed under the following subject headings.

a. Public Parks

A total of 112 public parks were identified within the watershed. Hunting has been and continues to be a tradition within the Swatara Creek watershed. Numerous public lands open for hunting are located within the watershed; these include State Gamelands, State Parks, State Forests, and Fort Indiantown Gap property. The majority of this land is located in the forested northern portion of the watershed. The majority of the southern portion of the watershed is privately owned farmland with limited access. However, in some cases to reduce crop damage, permission can be obtained to hunt on these private lands. Table 6-2 lists the available public hunting lands in the Swatara Creek watershed.

STATE PARKS: Two (2) state parks (Memorial Lake and Swatara) are located in the Swatara Creek watershed. These parks are located in Lebanon and Schuylkill counties and are described in the following paragraphs.

Memorial Lake State Park

The centerpiece of the 230-acre Memorial Lake State Park is the 85-acre Memorial Lake. The park offers boating (non-motorized), fishing, ice-skating, cross-country skiing, and picnicking as its primary sources of recreation.

Swatara State Park

The 3,515-acre Swatara State Park is currently undeveloped. It offers only fishing, hunting, and hiking opportunities. Plans for the future development of the park are pending the outcome of a proposal to construct a 753-acre lake and dam on Swatara Creek within the park. Chapter 7 of this document presents and expanded discussion of the Park, its history, and its future development.

COUNTY PARKS: The only identified County Parks in the watershed were found in Lebanon County. These parks include The Union Canal Tunnel Park and Monument Park in the City of Lebanon. No county parks were located within the Berks, Dauphin, and Schuylkill County sections of the watershed. Although the Sweet Arrow Lake recreation area is currently controlled by Pine Grove Borough, it may soon come under the jurisdiction of Schuylkill County.

The Swatara Creek Greenway (detailed in Chapter 8), located within Dauphin County will also be associated with the Dauphin County Parks as it develops.

MUNICIPAL PARKS: 109 municipal parks were identified within the Swatara Creek watershed. Tables 6-3a, 6-3b, and 6-3c summarize the parks and features for each of the counties in the watershed. No parks or public playground areas were located in the municipalities of Upper Tulpehocken Twp. in Berks County; North Londonderry, Union, South Annville, and North Annville Townships in Lebanon County; Branch, Porter, and Tremont Township in Schuylkill County; and Londonderry Township Dauphin County.

Table 6-3a

Summary of Municipal Parks Located within Berks and Schuylkill Counties in the Swatara Creek Watershed

Name

Municipality

County

Type

Rehersburg Lions Field

Tulpehocken Twp.

Berks

Lions Club

Mt. Aetna Lions Field

Tulpehocken Twp.

Berks

Lions Club

Frystown Playground

Bethel Twp.

Berks

Playground

Veterans Park

Pine Grove Borough

Schuylkill

Passive/Playground

Sweet Arrow Lake

Pine Grove Borough

Schuylkill

Passive

Pine Grove Twp. Recreation Area

Pine Grove Twp.

Schuylkill

Playground

Mt. Pleasant Hose Company Playground

Foster Twp.

Schuylkill

Playground

Municipal Playground

Frailey Twp.

Schuylkill

Playground

Twp. Playground

Reilly Twp.

Schuylkill

Playground

Frog Hollow Environmental Center

Wayne Twp.

Schuylkill

Nature Center (privately operated)

Tremont Borough Swimming Pool

Tremont Borough

Schuylkill

Swimming Pool

Borough Playground on Poplar St.

Tremont Borough

Schuylkill

Playground

Municipal Playground

Washington Twp.

Schuylkill

PlaygroundAthletic

 

Table 6-3b

Summary of Municipal Parks Located within the Dauphin County Portion of the Swatara Creek Watershed

Name

Municipality

County

Type

Brookside Park

Derry Twp.

Dauphin

Athletic/Playground

Memorial Field

Derry Twp.

Dauphin

 Multi Use

Palmdale Park

Derry Twp.

Dauphin

Athletic/Picnic

Shank Park

Derry Twp.

Dauphin

Multi Use

Koons Park (Lions Club Field)

Derry Twp.

Dauphin

Athletic/Picnic

Hershey Recreation Center

Derry Twp.

Dauphin

Multi Use

Chocolatetown Square

Derry Twp.

Dauphin

Passive

Boathouse Park

Derry Twp.

Dauphin

Passive

Bullfrog Valley Pond

Derry Twp.

Dauphin

Passive

Shaffner Park

Hummelstown Borough

Dauphin

Multi Use

Mahaffey Park

Hummelstown Borough

Dauphin

Multi Use

Shopes Field

Hummelstown Borough

Dauphin

Athletic

Nature Trail

Hummelstown Borough

Dauphin

Multi Use

Graystone Park

Hummelstown Borough

Dauphin

Under Construction

Koons Park

Lower Paxton Twp.

Dauphin

Multi Use

Brightbill Park

Lower Paxton Twp.

Dauphin

Multi Use/Comm. Ctr.

Buchannan Tract

Lower Paxton Twp.

Dauphin

Passive/Undeveloped

Hodges Heights Park

Lower Paxton Twp.

Dauphin

Multi Use

Kings Crossing Park

Lower Paxton Twp.

Dauphin

Playground/Athletic

Lamplight Park

Lower Paxton Twp.

Dauphin

Multi Use

Meadow Brook Park

Lower Paxton Twp.

Dauphin

Multi Use

George Memorial Park

Lower Paxton

Dauphin

Multi Use

Old Reliance Park

Lower Swatara Twp.

Dauphin

Multi Use

Park at Middletown High School

Lower Swatara

Dauphin

Multi Use

East Hanover Park

East Hanover Twp.

Dauphin

Multi Use

Conewago Twp. Play Area

Conewago Twp.

Dauphin

Playground

Earl R. Long Memorial Park

Swatara Twp.

Dauphin

Playground/Athletic

Chambers Hills Park

Swatara Twp.

Dauphin

Playgrounds/Athletic

Howard “Bumps” Randolph Memorial Park

Swatara Twp.

Dauphin

Playground/Athletic

Manor Park

West Hanover Twp.

Dauphin

Multi Use

Fairville Park

West Hanover Twp.

Dauphin

Multi Use

Houck Memorial Field

West Hanover Twp.

Dauphin

Athletic

Houck Manor Field

West Hanover Twp.

Dauphin

Athletic

West Hanover Municipal Park

West Hanover Twp.

Dauphin

Undeveloped

Lawrence Park

West Hanover Twp.

Dauphin

Undeveloped

Mount Laurel Park

West Hanover Twp.

Dauphin

Wooded/Passive

2 Elementary School Playground

West Hanover Twp.

Dauphin

Playground/Athletic

Stone Mill Rd. Ballfield

S. Hanover Twp.

Dauphin

Athletic

Swatara Park

S. Hanover Twp.

Dauphin

Multi Use

Greenbriar Field

S. Hanover Twp.

Dauphin

Athletic

Kiwanas Park

Royalton Borough

Dauphin

Multi Use

Market Street Playground

Royalton Borough

Dauphin

Playground

Tot Lot

Royalton Borough

Dauphin

Tot Lot

Hoffer Park

Middletown Borough

Dauphin

Multi Use

Oak Hills Park

Middletown Borough

Dauphin

Multi Use

Frey Manor Park

Middletown Borough

Dauphin

Multi Use

Etnoyer Park

Middletown Borough

Dauphin

Multi Use

Colston Park

Middletown Borough

Dauphin

Multi Use

Municipal Park

Middletown Borough

Dauphin

Playground

Swatara Boat Launch

Middletown Borough

Dauphin

Boat Launch

 

Table 6-3c

Summary of Municipal Parks Located within Lebanon County of the Swatara Creek Watershed

Name

Municipality

County

Type

West Lebanon Recreation Area

W. Lebanon Twp.

Lebanon

Multi Use

W. Lebanon Playground

W. Lebanon Twp.

Lebanon

Playground

Quittie Creek Nature Park

Annville Twp.

Lebanon

Passive/Nature

Maple St. Park

Annville Twp.

Lebanon

Athletic

(Privately maintained) 

Coleman Memorial Park

City of Lebanon

Lebanon

Multi Use

Northeast Park

City of Lebanon

Lebanon

Multi Use

4 Association Owned Playgrounds

City of Lebanon

Lebanon

Playgrounds

Southeast Playground @ Hanover and Walnut Streets

City of Lebanon

Lebanon

Playground

East End Playground @ 5th and Lehman

City of Lebanon

Lebanon

Playground

Beautex Park

City of Lebanon

Lebanon

Playground 

Southwest Park

City of Lebanon

Lebanon

Multi Use 

Meadowbanks Park

City of Lebanon

Lebanon

Passive/Trail

Stoever’s Dam

City of Lebanon

Lebanon

Multi Use

2 Tiny Tot Lots

City of Lebanon

Lebanon

Tot Lot

Fishers Park

City of Lebanon

Lebanon

Passive

Lebanon Park at 6th St. and Poplar St.

City of Lebanon

Lebanon

Greenspace

Athletic Field at 15th and Cedar Crest Dr.

North Lebanon

Lebanon

Athletic

North Lebanon Park along Rt. 72

North Lebanon

Lebanon

Multi Use

North Lebanon Lions Lake Park

North Lebanon

Lebanon

Walking Paths

North Lebanon Township Park

North Lebanon

Lebanon

Multi Use 

Avon Playground

South Lebanon

Lebanon

Playground

South Hills Park

South Lebanon

Lebanon

Multi Use

Cornwall Park at Sand St.

Cornwall

Lebanon

Playground

Athletic Field near Gold Rd.

Cornwall

Lebanon

Athletic

Athletic Field at Snitz

Cornwall

Lebanon

Athletic

Cornwall Park at George St.

Cornwall

Lebanon

Playground

Cornwall Park at Broad St.

West Cornwall

Lebanon

Playground

Community Playground @ Center St.

North Cornwall

Lebanon

Playground

Broad St. Park

West Cornwall

Lebanon

Playground 

W. Cornwall Tiny Tot Lot

West Cornwall

Lebanon

Tot Lot

Heritage Park

Palmyra

Lebanon

Multi Use

Firemans Park

Palmyra

Lebanon

Playground

South East Park

Palmyra

Lebanon

Athletic

Garfield St. Park

Cleona

Lebanon

Multi Use 

Jonestown Borough Playground

Jonestown

Lebanon

Multi Use

Levitz Park

East Hanover

Lebanon

Multi Use

(Under Construction)

Fire Company Park @ Grebel Rd.

Bethel

Lebanon

Athletic/Passive

Lions Park

Bethel

Lebanon

Athletic/Playground

Jackson Meadows

Jackson

Lebanon

Athletic

Kutztown Field

Jackson

Lebanon

Athletic

Jackson Elementary School

Jackson

Lebanon

Playground

H.I. Grubine Field

Jackson

Lebanon

Athletic

Cambletown Playground

South Londonderry

Lebanon

Playground

Tot Lot

South Londonderry

Lebanon

Tot Lot

The following paragraphs give a brief synopsis of the seven (7) parks located adjacent to the streams in the watershed:

Hoffer Park is a six (6) acre facility located on Swatara Creek in the Borough of Middletown. This park is a multi use park that is used for numerous recreational and community activities. It contains several basketball and tennis courts, one beach volleyball court, two picnic pavilions and a playground. The park also offers access to Swatara Creek for fishing.

Swatara Creek Park is a 15acre (approx.) recreational area located adjacent to Swatara Creek in South Hanover Township. This park is a multi use facility with baseball/soccer fields, a playground, and a picnic pavilion with grilling facilities. The park also provides fishing access to Swatara Creek and contains a section of the Union Canal and Tow Path. A portion of the park is an undeveloped wetland area.

Quittie Creek Nature Park is an approximately 23 acre park located along the northern bank of Quittapahilla Creek in Annville Township. The property was obtained by Annville Township in 1967 from the Bethlehem Mines. From approximately 1903 through 1952 the site was used as a limestone quarry and kiln, the remnants of which can still be observed in the park. Quittie Creek Nature Park is currently used for passive recreational pursuits as well as fishing and canoeing access. The park also contains an interpretive nature trail. The Friends of Old Annville have proposed several improvements to the park; these are presented in the Management Options section of this document (Chapter 10).

Cleona Elementary School Park is 13.4 ac. facility located on the north bank of Quittapahilla Creek in the Borough of Cleona. The park is essentially an extension of the playground at the Cleona Elementary School. The facility allows for passive recreation along the stream.

Levitz Park is a 105 ac. facility located in East Hanover Township, Lebanon County. This park contains an unnamed tributary to Swatara Creek flowing through the western edge of the park. The park is currently being developed; but contains athletic fields, courts, and rinks. The facility also contains picnic areas, restrooms, and trails.

Veterans Park is an approximately 8-acre facility located along the former Union Canal in the Borough of Pine Grove. The park reestablished the canal in its historic location as well as re-vegetated the area of the park. The Pine Grove Area Bicentennial Committee established the park in 1996. The Park is used for numerous activities, including ice-skating during the winter months; but it is primarily used for passive recreation.

The Sweet Arrow Lake Recreation Area is located adjacent to the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission Access area on Sweet Arrow Lake. The Borough of Pine Grove controls the area. It is used for passive recreation, picnicking, fishing, and boating. Ownership for the area may change in the future due to concerns about the condition of the dam and potential liabilities involved.

Photo 6-1: View of Sweet Arrow Lake Recreation Area.

b. Public Forests/Gamelands

Seven (7) Public Forests/Game Lands located all or partially within the watershed were identified. These lands total 29,949 acres (approx. 8.2% of the watershed). Table 6-2 presents these areas.

c. Boat Launches

As stated previously, canoeing and boating have become increasingly popular on Swatara Creek and some of its tributaries. In addition, boating opportunities are also available on several of the lakes in the watershed. No boating or canoeing facilities are available in the Berks County Section of the Watershed. Table 6-4 presents the boat launching areas in the watershed.

Photo 6-2: Boat docking area at Memorial Lake State Park.

Table 6-4

Summary of Boat Launches and Access Points Located within

The Swatara Creek Watershed

 

County

Type

Public/Private

Name

Sweet Arrow Lake

Schuylkill

 Canoe/Boat

Public 

Intersection of Appalachian Trail and Swatara Creek

Lebanon

Proposed Canoe

Public

Swatara Creek @ Scotto’s Italian Restaurant in Jonestown

Lebanon

Canoe

Private/Public

Swatara Creek @ Waterworks

Lebanon

Canoe

 Public

Swatara Creek @ Union Canal Canoe Rentals in East Hanover Twp.

Lebanon

Canoe

Private/Public

Lebanon Water Authority at Route 22 Crossing

Lebanon

Proposed Canoe

Private/Public

Memorial Lake

Lebanon

Canoe/Boat

 Public

Lake Weiss

Lebanon

Canoe/Boat

 Private

Lake Strause

Lebanon

Canoe/Boat

 Private

Lions Lake/Ebenezer Dam

Lebanon

Canoe/Boat

 Public

Stoevers Dam

 Lebanon

Canoe/Boat

 Public

Marquette Lake

Lebanon

Canoe/Boat

Public 

Swatara Creek @ Boat House Road Park, Derry Twp.

Dauphin

Canoe

Public

Swatara Park @ Hummelstown Borough

Dauphin

Canoe

Public

Clifton Covered Bridge @ Fulling Mill Rd.

Dauphin

Canoe

Public

Swatara Creek/Susquehanna River

Dauphin

Boat 

 Public

 

d. Trails

There are numerous trails available for hiking, horseback riding, snowmobiling, etc. in the Swatara Creek watershed. Table 6-5 presents a summary of these identified trails.

Table 6-5

Summary of Major Trails Located Within the Swatara Creek Watershed

Name

County

Status

Appalachian

Schuylkill, Lebanon, Berks

Active

Horse-Shoe

Lebanon

Active

Lebanon County Rail-Trail

Lebanon

Under Construction

Swatara Creek/Union Canal and Tow Path

Dauphin, Lebanon

Planned

Walking Path Along Quittapahilla

Lebanon

Active

Swatara Water

Dauphin, Lebanon

Active

Hotel Road Trail

Lebanon

Active

Numerous other unnamed trails and paths exist within the watershed on the publicly held properties. The following paragraphs provide information on the major trails identified in the watershed.

Appalachian Trail

The Appalachian Trail is a 2,160 + mile footpath that stretches from Main to Georgia. Approximately 230 miles of the total trail are located within Pennsylvania.  Approximately 20 miles of trail is located within the watershed. Three local trail groups, the Susquehanna Appalachian Trail Club, Lebanon Valley Hiking Club, and York Hiking Club have taken on the responsibility of maintenance and upkeep of the trail within the watershed.

The Appalachian Trail is a 2,160 + mile footpath that stretches from Main to Georgia. Approximately 230 miles of the total trail are located within Pennsylvania.  Approximately 20 miles of trail is located within the watershed. Three local trail groups, the Susquehanna Appalachian Trail Club, Lebanon Valley Hiking Club, and York Hiking Club have taken on the responsibility of maintenance and upkeep of the trail within the watershed.

Photo 6-3: View of Appalachian Trail crossing at PA Route 443 Near Swatara State Park

Horse-Shoe Trail

The Horse-Shoe trail is a 137 + mile equestrian/foot path that was developed in 1935 to provide a link to the Appalachian Trail from Philadelphia. The trail is not publicly owned, and periodically changes as a result development and changing landowners. Approximately 10 miles of the Horse- Shoe Trail is located in the Swatara Creek watershed. The Lebanon Valley Hiking Club has taken the responsibility for maintaining the trail within the watershed. In addition the Horse-Shoe Trail Club based in Birchrunville, PA also completes work on the trail.

The Lebanon Valley Rail-Trail

The Lebanon Valley Rail Trail is a proposed 15 + mile bike/hiking trail that extends from the existing Conewago Trail (Lancaster County Line) into the City of Lebanon along the abandoned Pennsylvania Cornwall Railroad Line (RBA Group, 1998). The Lebanon Valley Rails to Trails (LVRT) group proposes to complete this trail. Approximately seven miles of this trail is located within the Swatara Creek watershed. Conversation with Mr. John Wengert, president of LVRT identified that the property for the southern 5 miles of trail was purchased in December 1999. The remaining trail length will be purchased and constructed in subsequent years.

e. Campgrounds

Numerous campgrounds exist within the Swatara Creek watershed. The majority of these are facilities open to the pubic for use. Table 6-6 lists these facilities as well as any relevant features.

Table 6-6

Campgrounds Identified Within the Swatara Creek Watershed

Name

County

Type

Hershey High Meadows Campground

Dauphin

Family

Hershey KOA Campground

Dauphin

Family

Lickdale Campground

Lebanon

Family

Gretna Glen Camp

Lebanon

Church

Camp Arewa

Lebanon

Private

Camp Carson

Lebanon

Private

Camp Strause

Lebanon

Private

Mt. Lebanon Grove Church Camp

Lebanon

Church

Bashore Boy Scout Camp

Lebanon

Scout

Thousand Trails Campground

Lebanon

 

Great Valley Girl Scout Camp

Lebanon

Scout

Jonestown KOA Campground

Lebanon

Family

Camp Swatara Family Camping

Lebanon

Family

Twin Grove Park Campgrounds

Schuylkill

Family

Echo Valley Park Campground

Schuylkill

Family

Camp-A-While

Schuylkill

Family

 

f. Golf Courses

A total of 16 public and private golf courses were identified in the watershed. They provided thousands of hours of recreational opportunities in 1999. Table 6-7 lists the golf courses identified.

Table 6-7

Golf Courses Identified Within the Swatara Creek Watershed

Name

Municipality

County

Lebanon Country Club

North Cornwall

Lebanon

Royal Oaks Golf Course

North Cornwall

Lebanon

Fairview Golf Course

West Cornwall

Lebanon

Course Along Trib. to Snitz Creek

Cornwall

Lebanon

V.A. South Hills Golf Course

South Lebanon

Lebanon

Monroe Valley Golf Course

Swatara

Lebanon

Blue Mountain View Country Club

Bethel

Lebanon

Freeport Mills Golf Course

Bethel

Lebanon

Pine Meadows Golf Course

Bethel

Lebanon

Lebanon Valley Golf Course

Jackson

Lebanon

Beaver Bend Chip and Putt Golf Course

South Hanover

Dauphin

Hershey Hotel Golf Course

Derry

Dauphin

Hershey Country Club and Golf Course

Derry

Dauphin

Hershey Parkview Golf Course

Derry

Dauphin

Spring Creek Golf Course

Derry

Dauphin

Manada Golf Course

East Hanover

Dauphin

Hidden Valley Golf Course

Washington

Schuylkill

g. Amusement Parks

Hersheypark, located in Hershey PA is the lone Amusement Park in the watershed. The amusement park was built in 1909 for employees of the Hershey Chocolate Company and students from the Hershey School. The park was later opened to the public and currently has over 2,000,000 visitors annually.

Other sites associated with Hershey Park include Hershey’s ZooAmerica, the Hershey Museum, and Hershey’s Botanical Gardens. The Hershey Arena, Theater, and Symphony are also attractions located in close proximity to the amusement park.

h. Other

In addition to the previously presented recreational facilities; the Penn National Race Course is located within the watershed, just off of PA Route 443 off of exit 28 of Interstate 81. This facility showcases thoroughbred horse racing.

The Middletown and Hummelstown (M+H) railroad is also a popular attraction within the watershed. This historic train line provides numerous passenger tours along Swatara Creek and the former Union Canal throughout the year.

A popular destination along the M+H rail line is Indian Echo Caverns, a natural limestone cavern formation. Numerous other limestone caverns exist in the southern portion of the watershed; how ever, Indian Echo Caverns is the only one developed for the public.

 

B. Archaeological and Historical

There is a diverse and unique history associated with the Swatara Creek watershed. The history of the area varies due to the unique physical, geological and cultural regions found throughout the watershed. The information in this section is presented within six (6) specific eras:

  1. Prehistory (<1600)
  2. Early Colonial Settlement (1600 ~ 1750)
  3. Community and Commercial Development (1750 ~ 1850)
  4. Industrial Development (1850 ~ 1950)
  5. Post Industrial (1950 ~ Present)

1. Prehistory

Archaeological findings in the region indicate that the Swatara Watershed has been inhabited for over 11,000 years. Three periods of prehistory are discussed in this section; the Paleo Indian period, the Archaic period, and the Woodland period. g. Amusement Parks

Hersheypark, located in Hershey PA is the lone Amusement Park in the watershed. The amusement park was built in 1909 for employees of the Hershey Chocolate Company and students from the Hershey School. The park was later opened to the public and currently has over 2,000,000 visitors annually.

Other sites associated with Hershey Park include Hershey’s ZooAmerica, the Hershey Museum, and Hershey’s Botanical Gardens. The Hershey Arena, Theater, and Symphony are also attractions located in close proximity to the amusement park.

The Paleo Indian period according to Mayer-Oaks (1955) extends from before 8,000 BC to 3,000 BC. This period covers the earliest inhabitants of the North American continent. These were generally nomadic hunters of now extinct big game.

In the Susquehanna River Valley, the Archaic period lasted between approx. 7000 BC and the time of Christ. It involved the evolution of the Paleo Indians; the first inhabitants of the North American continent. This group of Native Americans gradually evolved from the early Paleo Indians as the gradual changes in climate brought the Susquehanna River Valley climate into the conditions that we see today (Kent, 1984).

The Archaic period eventually evolved into the Woodland period. Within the Susquehanna River Valley, the period began around the time of Christ and lasted until approximately 1600 AD when the first European explorers and settlers began to move into the area. The Early Woodland period is identified by the use of pottery vessels in the cooking and storage of food for the first time. (Kent, 1984) As the Woodland period progressed, distinct changes in the culture of the Native Americans took place. This was facilitated by the introduction of horticulture to the native groups. The long-term results of the development of horticulture included the development of larger and more permanent villages. Eventually these tribes began to develop a unique or tribal identity; which eventually led to increased competition and conflict among the individual communities or tribes. Hundreds of sites associated with the Woodland Area have been identified within the Swatara Creek watershed.

The dominant tribe in the Swatara Watershed as well as the entire Susquehanna River valley, at the time the first settlers arrived, were the Susquehannock Indians.

The Susquehannock Indians were closely related to the Iroquois Tribes. However, the two cultures split circa 1450 AD (Kent, 1984). Following the split, the Susquehannocks occupied the lands between the Susquehanna and the Delaware Rivers. It is believed that the Susquehannocks defeated many of the other tribes that inhabited this area including the Shenks Ferry People. However, the Susquehannock Nation was eliminated as a tribe by 1675 as a result of disease and a prolonged war with the Iroquois Nation.

During this prehistoric period, a precursor to today’s transportation system developed. The Allegheny Path, an Indian trail that extended from the Delaware River to the Susquehanna River was the major east-west route through the state (Wallace, 1998). The portion of the trail that extended through the Swatara Creek watershed from Myerstown to Harrisburg is today the site of Route 422.

Review of Pennsylvania Historical Museum Commission (PHMC) files and discussion with PHMC personnel revealed 401 prehistoric sites located in the Swatara Creek watershed, with 202 of these sites assignable to one of the above mentioned time periods. Information as to which time period each site is associated with is not currently available; however it should be accessible in the near future (Funk personal communication, 2000).

2. Early Colonial Settlement (1600-1750)

Prior to 1729, the area contained within the Swatara Creek watershed was not located within a delineated Pennsylvania county. After 1729 the watershed was considered part of Lancaster County; although the northern portion of the watershed was on the very outskirts of the established county boundary. It was not until 1732 that title to the lands south of the Blue Mountains, between the Delaware and Susquehanna Rivers, not previously purchased were deeded to the Pennsylvania colonists by the Delaware Indian Tribe. (Miller et al, 1940)

Although the watershed was not officially within the "settled" section of Pennsylvania; it was far from uninhabited. Scots-Irish immigrants were likely settling within the watershed prior to 1720. German, Swiss, and French Settlers officially began settling within the watershed around 1723. (Miller et al, 1940). The majority of these later settlers were of German descent. Because of their strong work ethic and thriftiness these settlers were in developing the region. Even today Germanic customs and characteristics are prevalent throughout the watershed.

Although there were various peace treaties, and the land within the watershed was deeded to the colonists, Indian raids and kidnappings occurred in the region up through 1760. This situation was compounded by the continued influx of new settlers into lands outside of the areas that was titled to the colony and later by the French and Indian War.

As a result of the raiding and in order to block the main Indian routes over Blue Mountain and as a defense during the French and Indian War, a string of eleven provincial forts were erected (or commandeered in some instances) between the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers along Blue Mountain from approximately 1754 through 1760. These forts served as the dividing line between the settled and unsettled parts of the state. Within the Swatara Creek watershed there were 3 provincial installations Fort Henry, Fort Swatara (originally Heydrick’s fortified property), and Fort Manada. Other private fortified properties and/or places of refuge included Brown’s Fort (located between Ft. Swatara and Ft. Manada), Glunninger Fort (now Pleasant Hill area) as well as the fortified properties of Adam Reed, Joeseph Barnett, Philip Johnson, Weidmans Mansion, Hess Blockhouse, Gibber Blockhouse, Bethel Moravian Church, Harpers Tavern, the Ulrich house, and the John Light property. The French and Indian War in Pennsylvania 1753-1763 (PHMC, 1996)also states that there were the private forts of Dietrich Six, Samuel Robinson, Phillip Robinson, as well as forts referred to as McClures’s, McFarlands, Pattons, and an unnamed fort in Indiantown Gap.

The primary industry during this time period within the watershed as well as the remainder of the frontier was agriculture. The most successful of the early settlers were the German farmers with their exceptional work ethic and understanding of some important farming concepts including fertilization and crop rotation. The abundant water supplies in the streams of the area provided the necessary energy to run gristmills. Several of these operations sprang up within the watershed during this time period. Most other industries at this time were offshoots of the farming operations, and many were located outside of the watershed in the larger settlements towards Philadelphia or Lancaster.

In 1742, Peter Grubb constructed the Cornwall Iron Mine and Furnace (Miller et al, 1940) located near the southern boundary of the watershed, following discovery of the Cornwall iron ore deposit. The Cornwall ore was rich and abundant (>40 feet deep). The furnace produced "Pig Iron" which was shipped downstream to the Susquehanna River and further on downstream to Baltimore. From Baltimore it was sent on to England. An offshoot of the iron furnace was the development of the charcoal industry. Burning, in the absence of oxygen, the abundant hardwoods in the area produced charcoal. This fuel, which burned hotter than regular wood, was then used in the furnace as part of the English (cold) method of producing iron. (Miller et al, 1940)

3. Community and Commercial Development (1750 to 1850)

The period between 1750 and 1850 brought about monumental changes in the Swatara Creek watershed. Berks County was formed from Chester, Lancaster, and Philadelphia Counties in 1752. In 1785 Dauphin County was formed from Lancaster County. In 1811 Schuylkill County was formed from Berks and Northhampton Counties. Finally in 1813 Lebanon County was formed from Berks and Dauphin Counties. These changes resulted in the Swatara Creek watershed today being located in Berks, Dauphin, Lebanon, and Schuylkill Counties. Although still not domesticated, (Indian raids and deaths were recorded in the watershed as late as 1760) the colonial frontier now extended into western Pennsylvania. Roads were being established between the major cities in the region and small communities and towns were springing up rapidly along these roadways (Lebanon (1756), Campbelltown (1760), Jonestown (1761), Fredericksburg (1761), Annville (1762), and Palmyra (1776)).

The most significant event from this period would be the Revolutionary War (1775 through 1783). Residents of the Swatara Creek watershed as well as the other frontier communities were significant supporters and contributors to the Revolutionary War effort. This support began prior to the actual onset of the war. Residents of the Lebanon Valley were quick to support the citizens of Boston following the English closure of the Boston Harbor following the "Boston Tea Party" (Miller et al, 1940). There are several possible reasons for the support and involvement in the move for independence from England, and eventually the Revolutionary War. Dunaway (1927) discusses that the diversity and adversity faced by the frontier colonists made them more warlike. In addition, unlike many in Philadelphia, they had no ties to England; nor felt any need to show a profit for the colonial sponsors. This led to a less pacifistic attitude toward English rule and culminated in the "overthrow" of the provincial government in 1776. Numerous regiments of soldiers were organized all or partially from within the Swatara Creek watershed (Miller, et al, 1940).

Following the revolutionary war, a period of significant growth and prosperity in the watershed and surrounding areas ensued. The discovery of anthracite coal in the northeastern Pennsylvania counties was another major event during this time period. The northern end of the Swatara Creek watershed originates in the southern end of southern anthracite coalfields (Edmunds, Skema, and Flint, 1999). The discovery and subsequent mining of this resource had a huge impact on the environment of the Swatara as well as its development.

Transportation played a great role in the changing landscape of the Swatara Creek watershed.

Construction began on a road between Lebanon and Lancaster via Cornwall in 1750. The roadway allowed for the movement of supplies to Cornwall and Lebanon and shipment of iron from Cornwall to Lancaster. This road later became known as the Cornwall Turnpike following the replacement of its roadway planks with "piking". Two other roadways The Horseshoe Pike and the Berks and Dauphin County Turnpike were also completed during this time period (1819 and 1817 respectively). Travel on these turnpikes led to the development of small communities along the highway; watering areas approximately every 5 miles and overnight accommodations approximately every 25 miles. (Miller et al, 1940)

One of the major transportation features associated with Swatara Creek, the Union Canal, was built during this time period. As early as 1690, William Penn recommended a canal be built to connect the Susquehanna and Schuylkill Rivers via Swatara and Tulpehocken Creeks.

Initially the project was chartered as the Schuylkill and Susquehanna Canal Co. Construction of the canal was initiated in 1792 and several miles of canal were completed between Lebanon and Myerstown before construction was halted due to a lack of funding. In 1795 a lottery was approved by the state legislature to provide up to $400,000 to fund construction of the canal. However, over the next 20 years only $270,000 reached the canal company for use on the canal.

In 1811 there was a reorganization of the company and the Union Canal Company of Pennsylvania resulted. Work on completing the canal commenced in 1821 and was completed in 1828. A canal branch, to access the southern anthracite coalfields and provide additional water to the canal, was completed between Waterworks and Pine Grove in 1832. Total construction cost for the canal was >$6,000,000.

The canal locks constructed as part of the Union Canal were too small for the larger boats coming from the Pennsylvania Canal and Schuylkill Canal. Enlargement of the locks began circa 1850 and was completed throughout that decade. However an 1862 flood severely damaged the canal. Costly repairs and problems supplying water for the canal coupled with the loss of revenues caused by completion of the Lebanon Valley Railroad in 1857 eventually led to the closing of the canal in 1884. The Union Canal closed having only paid dividends to its stockholders twice over entire life of its existence. (Libbey personal communication, 1999)

One additional feature of note associated with the Union Canal is the Union Canal Tunnel. This tunnel is a significant feature in the section of the Union Canal connecting Clarks Run and the headwaters of Quittapahilla Creek. It was constructed between 1825 and 1827. The tunnel was initially 729 feet long; but was shortened to 600 feet when the tunnel was enlarged in 1858. The tunnel is currently the oldest existing transportation tunnel in the United States and may have been the first transportation tunnel constructed in the United States.

(Information for the previous paragraphs was a conglomeration of data presented in (Aungst, 1968), (Pawling, 1981), and LCHS Webpage)).

The final transportation feature affecting the watershed was the Railroads. Although the Railroad gained much greater prominence after 1850, rail lines were found within the watershed prior to this time period. The earliest recorded rail line in the watershed was the Lorberry Creek Railroad in 1831. This rail line used wood strap and horses. The first locomotive lines in the watershed appeared in the 1840’s. By 1850 the railroad tracks had been switched from straps to T rails, and horses were no longer used to move the rail cars.

The development of the railroad in the watershed along with other factors led to the demise of the Union Canal.

In addition to changes in the modes of transportation, there were additional changes in the industries located within the Swatara Creek watershed during this time period.

Agriculture was still the dominant industry in the watershed. However, changes in farming practices were occurring during this time period. Much of the southern and eastern watershed is rich in limestone deposits. Burning this limestone results in the formation of slaked lime, a soil additive that was beneficial to the production of the planted crops. Many of the local residents utilized this process to increase their crop production.

Numerous mills (grist and saw) sprang up along the waterways of the Swatara Creek watershed in the early 1800’s. The gristmills, in conjunction with the improved transportation system of the area allowed farmers to ship greater quantities of grist or flour and lumber to market; however, most of the flour and lumber was used and/or sold locally. Numerous mills were documented along Quittapahilla Creek (Heilman, 1903). Only two of these mills were present prior to 1750. However, numerous dams for mills are referenced in the History of Pine Grove, Pennsylvania (Haas, 1935). A total of 81 mills were identified and documented by SCWA along Swatara Creek and the remainder of the tributaries in the watershed

The Cornwall Iron furnace and ore mine that originated in 1742 was in continued operation throughout this time period. In addition to its original operation of producing "Pig Iron", the furnace also cast cannon barrels for the colonists during the revolutionary war.

With the discovery of anthracite coal the first significant changes to the iron making process occurred. Anthracite coal replaced the traditional charcoal in the iron making process. The Cornwall furnace was not equipped to convert to anthracite; therefore, the owners built other furnaces, equipped to utilize coal, in the vicinity of the ore mines. Additional iron furnaces sprang up in the vicinity of Cornwall and throughout the watershed; however, all/most of the ore for these operations was still provided by the Cornwall mine.

The coal mining coupled with the absence of any effective environmental regulation resulted in the serious degradation to Swatara Creek. Haas (1935) writes in the History of Pine Grove, Pennsylvania "…when the obstructions (dams on the creek) were washed away it was too late. The water had already become polluted with the flow of culm from the mines, and the main stream of the Swatara between Jonestown and the headwaters became barren of fish". A 22-mile Branch Feeder to the Union Canal was completed between 1828 and 1830 to access the anthracite coal for transport. (Pawling, 1983) In addition, railroad lines (originally mule drawn and later steam and diesel were constructed from the northern terminus of the Union Canal to the coal collieries in the anthracite fields.

Photo 6-4: Forge located near Lebanon reservoir

4. Industrial Development (1850 to ~1950)

Again significant changes affected the Swatara Creek watershed between 1850 and 1950. Early in this period the Civil war had a significant effect on the development of this nation. Later, the advent of the industrial age brought about a marked change in the lives and lifestyles of the residents of the region and watershed. Finally, World War 1 and 2 sandwiched around the great depression provided the final changes to the watershed and its inhabitants during this time period.

Residents of the Swatara Creek watershed were involved in each of these events. However, none of these events actually originated in the watershed; and except for the Great Depression and the industrial age, none of the events took place in the watershed. The iron and steel industries in the watershed were among the first to become mechanized during the industrial age. These industries are still present in the watershed today, albeit to a lesser extent.

The changes to the transportation system within the watershed are similar to the changes that occurred throughout the country during this time period. The canals although still in use at the beginning of this time period were becoming extinct. Cheaper more efficient transportation was being provided by railroads. The Union Canal located within the watershed ceased operations in 1884 after its assets were sold at sheriff’s sale. The demise of the canal resulted from the general deficiency of the canal caused by a lack of knowledge of the geology of the area; but it was also caused by the development of the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad (~1834), the Tidewater Canal (1840), and the Lebanon Valley Railroad (1857).

Schuylkill and Susquehanna RR Good Spring RR Lebanon and Pine Grove RR Lebanon and Tremont RR Lebanon Valley RR Lorberry Creek RR Middletown and Hummelstown RR Mount Eagle and Tremont RR Swatara RR South Mountain RR Swatara & Good Spring RR

The railroads were especially useful in transporting the vast quantities of anthracite coal being mined in the northern end of the watershed. Rail transportation of agricultural products and iron and charcoal from the remainder of the watershed was also more efficient than earlier methods.

The advent of the Model T automobile in 1908 and associated improvements in roadways began the decline of the railroading industry in the region. The majority of the previously listed rail lines were abandoned by the 1970’s. Today many of these abandoned rail lines are seeing a rebirth as rail trails.

Following World War II airplane travel also became popular in the region as well as throughout the country when numerous servicemen trained in the military to fly returned from the war. These men enjoyed flying and planned to continue the "hobby" in civilian life. This led to numerous small airports being located through the region and watershed.

Agriculture was still the dominant industry in the watershed during this time period. However by 1870, for the first time, less than half of the workforce in Lebanon County (Carmean (ed.), 1976), and likely the entire watershed, were working on farms. Innovations and modernization led to increased harvests and greater amounts of land being cultivated in the watershed using less manpower.

Coal and iron were other major industries in the watershed and region. Complementary industries developed during this time period as a result of an increasing population and more limited amount of land available for farming. These businesses included steel foundries, machine shops, lumber mills, etc. Steel production developed as an offshoot of the iron industry and became a major influence in the City of Lebanon.

A major change that was taking place in the industries during this time period was the influx of different nationalities into the workforce. This was primarily occurring in the coalfields where more Overland highways were seeing continual improvements and the "pikes" from earlier years were becoming the major travel routes for many of the local residents especially after automobiles became the primary mode of transportation. Paved roads were located within the watershed by 1940.

From the mid 1800’s through the early 1900’s railroads were the primary method for delivering goods and services within the watershed. The majority of these rail lines were controlled by the Reading Railroad or its precursor the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad. Some of the early rail lines eventually bought out by or merged with the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company include: 
bulletSchuylkill and Susquehanna RR
bulletGood Spring RR
bulletLebanon and Pine Grove RR
bulletLebanon and Tremont RR
bulletLebanon Valley RR
bulletLorberry Creek RR
bulletMiddletown and Hummelstown RR
bulletMount Eagle and Tremont RR
bulletSwatara RR
bulletSouth Mountain RR
bulletSwatara & Good Spring RR

The railroads were especially useful in transporting the vast quantities of anthracite coal being mined in the northern end of the watershed. Rail transportation of agricultural products and iron and charcoal from the remainder of the watershed was also more efficient than earlier methods.

The advent of the Model T automobile in 1908 and associated improvements in roadways began the decline of the railroading industry in the region. The majority of the previously listed rail lines were abandoned by the 1970™s. Today many of these abandoned rail lines are seeing a rebirth as rail trails.

Following World War II airplane travel also became popular in the region as well as throughout the country when numerous servicemen trained in the military to fly returned from the war. These men enjoyed flying and planned to continue the ihhobbyld in civilian life. This led to numerous small airports being located through the region and watershed.

Agriculture was still the dominant industry in the watershed during this time period. However by 1870, for the first time, less than half of the workforce in Lebanon County (Carmean (ed.), 1976), and likely the entire watershed, were working on farms. Innovations and modernization led to increased harvests and greater amounts of land being cultivated in the watershed using less manpower.

Coal and iron were other major industries in the watershed and region. Complementary industries developed during this time period as a result of an increasing population and more limited amount of land available for farming. These businesses included steel foundries, machine shops, lumber mills, etc. Steel production developed as an offshoot of the iron industry and became a major influence in the City of Lebanon.

A major change that was taking place in the industries during this time period was the influx of different nationalities into the workforce. This was primarily occurring in the coalfields where more of the Slavic nationalities (Polish, Hungarian, Slovak, etc.) were working the mines that used to be almost exclusively the domain of Irish and English miners.

During the early 1900’s the union movement began in anthracite coalfields. A major strike in 1902 led to pay increases and improved working conditions for miners. This strike also led to the recognition of the United Mine Workers Union.

Limestone and dolomite had been important minerals in the Lebanon Valley from the time the first settlements were established in the area. Burnt limestone was utilized as a soil additive for enhanced crop production. However, its value as a building material and "flux" in the iron making process in addition to its agricultural properties led to it being mined extensively in the southern end of the watershed. The Annville Stone Company began the first commercial limestone mining operations in early/mid 1800s. The Annville limestone of the watershed was and is highly valued because of its high calcium carbonate content. Today abandoned quarries are located throughout the Lebanon and Dauphin County portions of the watershed. Pennsy Supply and Handwerk Inc. in Dauphin County and Pennsylvania Lime Inc. in Lebanon County are running active quarry operations.

In addition to limestone and dolomite, a sandstone known locally as brownstone was quarried in the watershed. This material was used extensively as a building material in the Hummelstown area in the mid 1800s. From 1853 through 1858 the stone was used to construct enlarged locks on the Union Canal. This brought national attention to the brownstone as a building material. The brownstone was used in hundreds of buildings and structures in at least 13 states. These include the Standard Oil Company Building in New York City and the Academy of Fine Arts and the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia. The Pennsylvania Brown Freestone Company (1867-1891) and the Hummelstown Brownstone Company (1891-1929) were the primary companies that quarried the brownstone. The quarried brownstone was also manufactured into brownstone bricks. However the advent of the clay brick manufacturing process, which was cheaper and had a variety of colors led to the demise of the brownstone industry circa 1927 (Olena, 1965)

In 1903 a new industry was developed in the watershed - Chocolate. Milton S. Hershey, following the sale of his Lancaster caramel business, began construction on a new factory to produce chocolate in the farmland of Derry Township. Around this factory the town of Hershey was born. Mr. Hershey developed a recipe for milk chocolate that became world famous and made Hershey a synonym for chocolate.

Mr. Hershey had a deep and abiding sense of duty to his community and workers. As a result he spent large amounts of his personal wealth on the welfare of others. In 1909 he established the Hershey School for orphaned boys. The school took orphaned boys and raised and educated them. Upon his death in 1948 Milton Hershey left his estate to the school. The Hershey Trust continues to be managed for the good and welfare of the residents of the Hershey School.

In addition to the Hershey School, Milton Hershey also constructed the Hershey Hotel, Hershey Park, and Hershey Arena. Many of these projects were undertaken in the 1930’s during the great depression. During this time period Hershey was one of the few towns that grew. Mr. Hershey was proud to say that no employee was laid off during the depression (Hershey Foods, 1999).

5. Post Industrial (1950 to Present)

The last fifty years have again produced major changes in the watershed. The automobile has ascended to be the primary method of travel for both people and goods. Interstate Highways (I-81, 76 and 78) have been constructed through the watershed. Other state and local roadways have been constructed throughout the watershed. Following the decline of the railroad as a source of transportation, mass transit vehicles were introduced to the watershed. Currently two bus service lines provide for local transportation needs in the watershed. They are the Capital Area Transit (CAT) that provides service to Middletown, and portions of Dauphin County in the watershed and County of Lebanon Transit Authority (COLT), which provides service to Lebanon County residents.

As stated previously, the advance of the automobile spelled the doom of the railroad. Within the Swatara Creek watershed there are currently only four (4) railroad lines that are active. Amtrak operates a passenger service line that runs through Middletown. Conrail (soon to be Norfolk Southern) operates a line that passes through the City of Lebanon (East to West), The Blue Mountain and Reading Railroad and the Middletown to Hummelstown (M+H) Railroad. The Blue Mountain and Reading and M+H railroads are primarily sight seeing rail lines today.

Although no major commercial airports are located within the watershed, the numerous small airfields located are an indication of the popularity of this source of recreation and travel. In addition, Harrisburg International Airport is located adjacent to the watershed in Middletown. Fort Indiantown Gap’s Muir Airfield, a major military training facility, is located within the watershed. A complete description of the transportation features in the watershed is presented in Chapter 2- Project Area Characteristics of this document. The industrial make up of the watershed has also changed over the last fifty years. Though agricultural production is at an all time high, less than 5% of the population now farms (Carmean (ed), 1976). The coal industry in the northern portion of the watershed is working at only a fraction of historic levels. Limestone in the watershed is being quarried with fewer employees than the past. The percentage of manufacturing and industrial jobs has also declined throughout the watershed. In recent years the greatest increase in the workforce has occurred in the service industries. This trend is expected to continue in the coming years. In addition, the tourism industry in association with the Hershey Park attractions, campgrounds, outdoor, and sightseeing has also become important to the economy of the watershed. This trend is only expected to increase in the future.